The PUP Toolkit is built on decades of research that has investigated a child's path to strong reading. To bring that research to you, we created PUP Science -- a series of short memos written for parents that describe the foundational skills needed to read, and what we know about how parents can promote them. Each memo defines the foundational skill, explains what it looks like in developing readers, and gives an overview of how parents can help at home. Our final memo is a high-level summary of research on the specific effects of parent involvement in children’s developing skills during their earliest years. View or download the memos below.
Birth to age 3:
Age 4 to grade 3: